The Education Endowment Foundation describes meta-cognition, or learning how to learn, as teaching pupils specific strategies to set goals, and monitor and evaluate their own academic development. Research strongly indicates that teaching such approaches has high levels of impact, particularly for low-achieving and older students. More information can be gained at bit.ly/p-eef
The foundation recommends that the following three aspects should be considered.
Teaching how to plan; asking students to identify the different ways that they could plan (general strategies) and then how best to approach a particular task (specific technique)
Teaching how to monitor; asking students to consider where the task might go wrong and having them identify the key steps for keeping it on track.
Teaching how to evaluate; asking students to consider how they would improve their approach to the task if they completed it again.